May – Month Of Melanoma And Other Skin Cancers

melanome

American Academy of Dermatology has declared May as the month of detection and prevention of Melanoma / Skin Cancer. Every first Monday in May is a day of melanoma (Melanoma Monday).

Melanoma is the most dangerous skin cancer. It begins in melanocytes, the skin cells producing the pigment melanin, which gives color to the skin. When mutations occur in genes in melanocytes, they start to divide rapidly and uncontrolled, resulting in the development of melanoma. It is the most common cause of death from skin cancer. Worldwide, each year over 48,000 people die from malignant melanoma.

American Academy dermatological (AAD) and the Foundation for skin cancer indicate that the most important major risk factor for the development of skin melanoma is uncontrolled and excessive exposure to sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet radiation. Due to the reduced amount of ozone in the upper atmosphere (ozone holes), the intensity of ultraviolet rays from year to year increases.

UV rays cause mutation of genes, which leads to the development of melanoma. Exposure to sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet radiation (sun lamps, tanning salons) increase the number of melanoma among young people and melanoma has become the most common disease among young girls of 20 years old. In many countries banned the use of solariums for minors, under the age of 18 years.

Skin cancer is increasing steadily. But it is encouraging that this type of cancer can be successfully prevented and detected early. Early detection of skin cancer, especially melanoma, saves lives.

may-month of melanome

Causes and symptoms of Malignant Melanoma

Predisposing causes for the development of malignant melanoma are usually environmental and genetic causes. Environmental factors occur after excessive sun exposure. There are also genetic and familial syndromes. Equally, ultraviolet radiation, and damage from oxygen free radicals caused by exposure to the sun can damage cells, especially their DNA. It is believed that this damage is involved in causing mutations that result in the development of malignant melanoma. Positive family history of one or two first-degree relatives who have had melanoma increases the risk of this malignancy based on genetic basis. This familial tendency was observed in 8% to 12% of patients. There is a syndrome known as dysplastic (atypical) nevus syndrome characterized by atypical moles with certain clinical characteristics in children under 10 years of age. Such individuals should be monitored closely related to the development of malignant melanoma.

Predisposing causes for the development of malignant melanoma are usually environmental and genetic causes. Environmental factors occur after excessive sun exposure. There are also genetic and familial syndromes. Equally, ultraviolet radiation, and damage from oxygen free radicals caused by exposure to the sun can damage cells, especially their DNA. It is believed that this damage is involved in causing mutations that result in the development of malignant melanoma. Positive family history of one or two first-degree relatives who have had melanoma increases the risk of this malignancy based on genetic basis. This familial tendency was observed in 8% to 12% of patients. There is a syndrome known as dysplastic (atypical) nevus syndrome characterized by atypical moles with certain clinical characteristics in children under 10 years of age. Such individuals should be monitored closely related to the development of malignant melanoma.
The number of moles increases the risk, but it is necessary to consider the size of the moles. If there are ten large moles with size over than 1 cm the risk is higher than those with a large number (50-99) of smaller moles. When a child is born with large, congenital moles, it’s necessary to observe the changes carefully due to the increased risk. Changes that are significant to birth mark are:
• Asymmetry
• Border irregularity
• The color of birth mark
• Diameter greater than 6 mm

Three of the criteria relating to the variability of the lesion (the color of the birth mark refers to the parts of a light color and dark color scattered within birth mark). Small, regular uniform lesion has less cause for concern. It is important to understand that changing of the moles or rapid development of new symptoms is very important.
Other significant changes in moles are assessed by Glasgow 7 scale. Symptoms and signs listed below may occur anywhere on the skin, including hands, feet and the base of the nails:
• changes in size
• changes in shape
• Change in color
• inflammation
• crusting and bleeding
• sensory changes
• diameter over 7 mm

In this scheme, the change is highlighted, along with the size. Bleeding and sensory changes are relatively late symptoms. Symptoms associated with the presence of regional disease, are related to the presence of knots or lumps in the lymph node areas. There are also special types of metastases that occur in malignant melanoma regional, known as transit metastases. If melanoma spreads through the lymphatic system, results with the node between the primary site and the original lymph node. Patients who are diagnosed with widespread systemic disease, symptoms and signs are associated with the organs that are affected. These include neurological problems, lung problems, liver problems and, depending on the occupancy of the organ, with metastasis.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *